combines edge-illuminated holographic stereograms
with force models of the same simple geometry. The static
multi-modal simulation can be inspected both visually and
haptically with a force-feedback device.
& michael klug
These early experiments combined static, optically
printed holographic stereograms of simple scenes
with force models of the same geometry and texture.
The holograms are monochromatic, have full parallax,
and reconstruct entirely in front of their image plane
(in the viewer's space). The force simulation is
spatially collocated and metrically registered with
the 3D visual image.
The resulting multi-modal images can be inspected
both visually and haptically (using the Phantom's
hand-held stylus). The visual and haptic outputs
appear to arise from the same spatial location in
all but a few pathological arrangements of eye,
hand and tool.
force simulation was
served by a Pentium PC and
maintained a servo rate above
1kHz. Simple bulk properties,
texture, and friction were
The block and sphere holos
were each generated from
thousands of rendered
perspective views of their
To simplify the process of
creating these render-intensive
stereograms, we developed
our first render-on-demand
view server which generated
and delivered views on request
to the hologram printer.