The Lut Desert of Iran is one of the most similar regions to Mars. Close to that area, there are vernacular adobe architectures that are hundreds of years old which were built by primitive construction methods, but with interesting and complex geometry.
Among all city structures, bathhouses represent the unique example of an introvert architecture that has a deep commonality with greenhouse closed-systems. A bathhouse not only isolates active interior life from the outer world, but also insulates the temperature and humidity from the extreme environment of the Lut Desert. It usually also has a closed clean water system, open-air water flow circulation, and water reservoir and safe power access, all features that should be present in a greenhouse design concept for Mars.
The main architectural feature of the Persian bathhouse architecture is the presence of one or more domes as a roof system. These masonry domes, named Karbandi, are characterized by ease of construction and use of local materials, absolutely consistent with the In Situ Resources Utilization requirements for building on Mars. Indeed, this research focuses on exploring the structural performance of bathhouse architecture for designing a 3D printed regolith dome—a shelter to provide micrometeoroid and radiation shielding for a greenhouse infrastructure on Mars.